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Jesuit missionary , painting from Bell made in Portugal for Nanbanji Church run by Jesuits in Japan, Early missions in Japan resulted in the government granting the Jesuits the feudal fiefdom of Nagasaki in However, this was removed in due to fears over their growing influence. He died in China after a decade of evangelism in Southern India. The Italian Jesuit Ippolito Desideri established a new Jesuit mission in Lhasa and Central Tibet —21 and gained an exceptional mastery of Tibetan language and culture, writing a long and very detailed account of the country and its religion as well as treatises in Tibetan that attempted to refute key Buddhist ideas and establish the truth of Roman Catholic Christianity. Jesuit missions in America became controversial in Europe, especially in Spain and Portugal where they were seen as interfering with the proper colonial enterprises of the royal governments. The Jesuits were often the only force standing between the Native Americans and slavery. Together throughout South America but especially in present-day Brazil and Paraguay , they formed Christian Native American city-states, called "reduction s". These were societies set up according to an idealized theocratic model. The efforts of Jesuits like Antonio Ruiz de Montoya to protect the natives from enslavement by Spanish and Portuguese colonizers would contribute to the call for the society's suppression. Jesuit scholars working in foreign missions were very important in studying their languages and strove to produce Latinized grammars and dictionaries. Under Portuguese royal patronage , Jesuits thrived in Goa and until successfully expanded their activities to education and healthcare. In they founded the first Roman-style academic institution in the East, St. Paul Jesuit College in Macau , China. Founded by Alessandro Valignano , it had a great influence on the learning of Eastern languages Chinese and Japanese and culture by missionary Jesuits, becoming home to the first western sinologists such as Matteo Ricci. Jesuit efforts in Goa were interrupted by the expulsion of the Jesuits from Portuguese territories in by the powerful Marquis of Pombal , Secretary of State in Portugal. For instance, before his death in , Jacques Gravier , vicar general of the Illinois Mission in the Mississippi River valley, compiled a Kaskaskia Illinois—French dictionary , considered the most extensive among works of the missionaries. The Jesuit China missions of the 16th and 17th centuries introduced Western science and astronomy, then undergoing its own revolution , to China. The scientific revolution brought by the Jesuits coincided with a time when scientific innovation had declined in China: They made very extensive astronomical observation and carried out the first modern cartographic work in China. They also learned to appreciate the scientific achievements of this ancient culture and made them known in Europe. Through their correspondence European scientists first learned about the Chinese science and culture. Their Latin works popularized the name " Confucius " and had considerable influence on the Deists and other Enlightenment thinkers, some of whom were intrigued by the Jesuits' attempts to reconcile Confucian morality with Catholicism. The Jesuits became involved in the Huron mission in and lived among the Huron peoples. Outside conflict forced the Jesuits to leave New France in when Quebec was captured by the Kirke brothers under the English flag. Throughout most of the s the Jesuits had great success, establishing five chapels in Huronia and baptising over one thousand Huron natives. The Iroquois grew jealous of the Hurons' wealth and fur trade system, began to attack Huron villages in They killed missionaries and burned villages, and the Hurons scattered. However, facing starvation, lack of supplies, and constant threats of Iroquois attack, the small Sainte-Marie II was abandoned in June ; the remaining Hurons and Jesuits departed for Quebec and Ottawa. In the Iroquois nation had a fallout with the Dutch. They then signed a peace treaty with the French and a mission was established. The Iroquois took the treaty lightly and soon turned on the French again. In , the Jesuits were having very little success and were under constant threat of being tortured or killed,  but continued their effort until when they abandoned their permanent posts in the Iroquois homeland. The English barred the immigration of more Jesuits to New France. By , there were only twenty-one Jesuits stationed in New France. By only eleven Jesuits remained. There were a number of Jesuit colleges founded in the decades following; one of these colleges evolved into present-day Laval University. He founded Georgetown University in , and it remains a pre-eminent Jesuit school. Peter De Smet was a Jesuit active in missionary work among the Plains Indians in the midth century. His extensive travels as a missionary were said to total , miles. He was known as the "Friend of Sitting Bull " because he persuaded the Sioux war chief to participate in negotiations with the United States government for the Treaty of Fort Laramie. The Jesuits in New Spain distinguished themselves in several ways. They had high standards for acceptance to the order and many years of training. They attracted the patronage of elite families whose sons they educated in rigorous newly founded Jesuit colegios "colleges" , including Colegio de San Pedro y San Pablo , Colegio de San Ildefonso , and the Colegio de San Francisco Javier, Tepozotlan. Those same elite families hoped that a son with a vocation to the priesthood would be accepted as a Jesuit. Jesuits were also zealous in evangelization of the indigenous, particularly on the northern frontiers. To support their colegios and members of the Society of Jesus, the Jesuits acquired landed estates that were run with the best-practices for generating income in that era. A number of these haciendas were donated by wealthy elites. The donation of a hacienda to the Jesuits was the spark igniting a conflict between seventeenth-century bishop of Puebla Don Juan de Palafox and the Jesuit colegio in that city. Since the Jesuits resisted paying the tithe on their estates, this donation effectively took revenue out of the church hierarchy's pockets by removing it from the tithe rolls. Although most haciendas had a free work force of permanent or seasonal labourers, the Jesuit haciendas in Mexico had a significant number of black slaves. Jesuits did significantly expand missions to the indigenous in the northern frontier area and a number were martyred, but the crown supported those missions. The Franciscans, who were founded as an order embracing poverty, did not accumulate real estate, unlike the Augustinians and Dominicans in Mexico. The Jesuits engaged in conflict with the episcopal hierarchy over the question of payment of tithes, the ten percent tax on agriculture levied on landed estates for support of the church hierarchy from bishops and cathedral chapters to parish priests. Since the Jesuits were the largest religious order holding real estate, surpassing the Dominicans and Augustinians who had accumulated significant property, this was no small matter. As elsewhere in the Spanish empire, the Jesuits were expelled from Mexico in Their haciendas were sold off and their colegios and missions in Baja California were taken over by other orders. Motezuma's Corona mexicana, o Historia de los nueve Motezumas was completed in He "aimed to show that Mexican emperors were a legitimate dynasty in the 17th-century in the European sense. Their re-introduction to Mexico was "to assist in the education of the poorer classes and much of their property was restored to them.
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